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By now, you should understand the basics of arithmetic. Are you done with math? Never. The fun is just beginning for you and the world of math and numbers. While addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division go a long way, there are a variety of different uses for those functions. We're going to cover the next steps of math and show you different types of numbers and objects that can be used with arithmetic.

# Fractions

Fractions are all about working with parts of numbers. You have probably heard of a half (1/2) or a quarter (1/4), but fractions can be so much more. You can have eight hundred and thirty-three nine hundred sixteenths (833/916) or any combination of numbers. Fractions break a whole number down into smaller pieces. They are most often used in measurements. An inch is often broken down into sixteenths. We'll have you understanding fractions and then adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing them.

# Decimals and Percentages

Decimals and percentages are another way to work with numbers that are less than one. A decimal breaks down a whole number into parts of ten. You might have tenths, hundredths, thousandths, or any value of ten. The quick way to recognize a decimal is to look for the decimal point. All of the numbers to the right of the decimal point are parts of a whole number.

Why would we talk about percentages here? Percentages are only one step away from decimals. Percentages are decimals that have been multiplied by one hundred. If you see a value such as seventy-nine percent (79%), that value is the same as seventy-nine hundredths (.79). Percentages are usually used with number values between zero and one hundred percent. Zero percent is nothing and one hundred percent is an entire thing. If you read this whole page, you will have read one hundred percent of the page.

RELATED ACTIVITIES
 Identifying Reciprocal Fractions - Play Activity Rounding to the Nearest Ten - Play Activity

# Estimation and Rounding

Rounding and estimation are important skills when you need to do fast math. You might be thinking these numbers are like guessing. Estimation is not really guessing. Think of it as intelligent guessing. Rounding is a skill you need before you can start estimating. Rounding evens out numbers with a lot of values. For example, it might take time to add numbers like seven hundred ninety-four (794) and two hundred eighteen (218). Rounding lets you drop a few of the numbers and replace them with zeros. The first number could round up to eight hundred (800) and the second would round down to two hundred (200). Take those two rounded numbers and add them to get an estimated sum for the math problem.

# Money Math

We figured that you should learn a bit about money and the math of money in this section. Working with money is only one step away from working with decimals. One dollar and seventy-two cents is really the same as 1.72. Eight and a half percent interest is the same and multiplying by 0.085. The basics of working with money should be easy for you.

But what is money? Money includes objects that are used to buy and sell things all over the world. Most societies use metal coins and paper bills. In the United States, you will need to understand that pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters represent values less than one dollar. The paper bills include values that are one dollar and greater. Common bills come in values of one, five, ten, and twenty dollars.

RELATED ACTIVITIES
 Estimating Differences to the Nearest Ten - Play Activity Counting Dollar Coins - Play Activity

 RELATED LINKS - Numbernut: Basic Math - Numbernut: Prealgebra - Biology4Kids: Scientific Method - Biology4Kids: Logic

 > Overview - Number Types - Fractions - Decimals - Percentages - Estimates & Rounding - Ratios - Money - Factors - Activities

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